Hello coders!! In this article, we will be learning about the Viterbi algorithm and its implementation in python. It is a dynamic programming algorithm used to find the most likely sequence of hidden states.

Contents of Tutorial

## Key features of Viterbi Algorithm

- Dynamic programming algorithm
- Implemented to find the most likely sequence of hidden states (the Viterbi path)
- It reduces the number of computations by storing the calculations that are repeated

## Mathematical Definition of Viterbi Algorithm:

A path** X = (x1,x2,……xT)** is generated which basically is a sequence of states **x ∈ S = {s1,s2,……sK}**. This generates the observation **Y = (y1, y2, …., yT) **with** y ∈ O = {o1,o2,….oN}**. Here, N is the possible number of observations in the observation space **O**.

In this we construct two 2D tables of size **KxT**

- Every element of table
**T1**, i.e.**T1[i,j]**stores the probability of the most likely path so far**X̂****= (x̂1, x̂2 …… x̂j)**where**x̂j = si**will generate**Y = (y1,y2 …yj)** - Every element of table
**T2**, i.e.**T2[i,j]**stores**x̂j-1**of the most likely path so far**X̂****= (x̂1, x̂2 …… x̂j)****∀ j, 2 <= j <= T** - The elements of table
**T1[i,j]**and**T2[i,j]**are filled in increasing order of**K.j+i** - T1[i,j] = max(T1[k,j-1].Aki.Biyj)
- T2[i,j] = argmax(T1[k,j-1].Aki.Biyj)

### Input:

- Observation space
**O = {o1,o2,…oN}** - State space S =
**{s1,s2,….,sk}** - An array consisting of initial probabilities
**π = (π1,π2….πk)**where πi stores the probability**x1 = si** - Sequence of observations
**Y = (y1, y2, …., yT)** - Transition matrix
**A**of size**K x K**where**A[i,j]**stores the transition probability of transiting from state**Si**to**Sj** - Emission matrix
**B**of size**K x N**where**B[i,j]**stores the probability of observing**Oj**from state**Si**

### Output:

The most likely hidden state sequence **X=(x1,x2…xj)**

## Implementation of Viterbi Algorithm in Python with an example:

To illustrate the working of Viterbi algorithm we will be considering an example for better understanding.

Consider a small town where people are either:

- healthy
- have fever

Only the doctor can differentiate or identify the people having fever from healthy people. He does so by inquiring about their symptoms. People can have one of the following answers:

- normal
- dizzy
- cold

The doctor believes that the health condition of his patients operates as a discrete Markov chain.

The two states are:

- healthy
- fever

However, these states are ‘hidden’ from the doctor. The observations can be:

- normal
- dizzy
- cold

Thus, this forms a hidden Markov model which can be represented has:

observations = ("normal", "cold", "dizzy") states = ("Healthy", "Fever") start_p = {"Healthy": 0.6, "Fever": 0.4} trans_p = { "Healthy": {"Healthy": 0.7, "Fever": 0.3}, "Fever": {"Healthy": 0.4, "Fever": 0.6}, } emit_p = { "Healthy": {"normal": 0.5, "cold": 0.4, "dizzy": 0.1}, "Fever": {"normal": 0.1, "cold": 0.3, "dizzy": 0.6}, }

**start_p:**doctor’s analysis of patients’ state when he first pays a visit.**trans_p:**change of state- In this example, we have considered a 30% change
**emission_p:**how likely a state is determined based on observations

Now, consider a situation where a patient visits three days consecutively. All three days, he shows different symptoms (normal/cold/dizzy). The doctor’s question here will be:** What is the most likely sequence of health conditions of the patient that would explain these observations?**

This question is answered by Viterbi algorithm.

def viterbi_algorithm(observations, states, start_p, trans_p, emit_p): V = [{}] for st in states: V[0][st] = {"prob": start_p[st] * emit_p[st][observations[0]], "prev": None} for t in range(1, len(observations)): V.append({}) for st in states: max_tr_prob = V[t - 1][states[0]]["prob"] * trans_p[states[0]][st] prev_st_selected = states[0] for prev_st in states[1:]: tr_prob = V[t - 1][prev_st]["prob"] * trans_p[prev_st][st] if tr_prob > max_tr_prob: max_tr_prob = tr_prob prev_st_selected = prev_st max_prob = max_tr_prob * emit_p[st][observations[t]] V[t][st] = {"prob": max_prob, "prev": prev_st_selected} for line in dptable(V): print(line) opt = [] max_prob = 0.0 best_st = None for st, data in V[-1].items(): if data["prob"] > max_prob: max_prob = data["prob"] best_st = st opt.append(best_st) previous = best_st for t in range(len(V) - 2, -1, -1): opt.insert(0, V[t + 1][previous]["prev"]) previous = V[t + 1][previous]["prev"] print ("The steps of states are " + " ".join(opt) + " with highest probability of %s" % max_prob) def dptable(V): yield " ".join(("%12d" % i) for i in range(len(V))) for state in V[0]: yield "%.7s: " % state + " ".join("%.7s" % ("%f" % v[state]["prob"]) for v in V)

### Output:

## Applications of Viterbi Algorithm:

- Decoding the convolutional codes used in both CDMA and GSM digital cellular
- Deep space communication
- Speech recognition and speech synthesis
- Keyword spotting
- Computational linguistics

## Must Read

- Bitonic sort: Algorithm and Implementation in Python
- Fibonacci series in Python and Fibonacci Number Program
- Understanding Python Bubble Sort with examples
- Python Nmap Module Fully Explained with Programs
- Python is Not Recognized as an Internal or External Command

## Conclusion:

In this article, we learned about the Viterbi Algorithm. We saw its implementation in Python, illustrated with the help of an example, and finally, we saw the various applications of the Viterbi Algorithm in modern technology.

However, if you have any doubts or questions, do let me know in the comment section below. I will try to help you as soon as possible.

*Happy Pythoning!*