In this post, we will see about Python sum () function.

Python **sum()** function is used to sum or add elements of the iterator from start to the end of iterable. It is generally used with numbers only.

## Introduction

Python 3 comes with many built-in functions that you can readily use in any program that you’re working on. Some functions enable you to convert data types, and others are specific to a certain type, like strings.

The `sum()`

function returns a number, the sum of all items in an iterable.

## Syntax of sum

sum(iterable, start)

## Parameters

**iterable**: iterable can be anything list, tuples or dictionaries,

but most importantly it should be number.

start : [optional] this start is added to the sum of numbers in the iterable.

If start is not given in the syntax, it is assumed to be 0.

**Note:** Here the iterable maybe Python list, tuple, set, or dictionary.

## What sum function returns in Python

The sum function returns

- Sum of the iterable from left to right
- If start is provided, it returns start + sum of iterable from left to right

## The time complexity of sum()

The time complexity of Python sum() depends on your data structure. For a flat list, dict you cannot do better than O(n) because you have to look at each item in the list to add them up.

## Python program to calculate the sum of elements in a list

##### Sum of Python list

To add all the elements of a list, a solution is to use the built-in function sum(), illustration:

list = [2, 3, 5, 8] sum(list)

**Output**

18

##### Python Program to Sum the list with start 10

list = [2, 3, 5, 8] print(sum(list, 10))

**Output**

18

##### Program to Sum the list of float

fList=[1.2,2.3,3.2,4.9] print(sum(fList))

**Output**

11.600000000000001

##### Python Program to Sum the list of float with start 10.1

fList=[1.2,2.3,3.2,4.9] print(sum(fList,10.1))

**Output**

21.699999999999996

## Program to calculate the sum of elements in a tuple

##### Example 1: Adding all items in a tuple, and returning the result

tuple = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) print(sum(tuple))

**Output**

15

##### Example 1: Starting with the 10, and adding all items in a tuple to this number:

tuple = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) print(sum(tuple, 10))

**Output**

25

## Python Program to calculate the sum of complex numbers

In sum() function works with complex numbers too.

s = sum([1 + 2j, 3 + 4j]) print(s) s = sum([1 + 2j, 3 + 4j], 2 + 2j) print(s) s = sum([1 + 2j, 2, 1.5 - 2j]) print(s)

**Output**

(4+6j) (6+8j) (4.5+0j)

## Program to calculate the sum of sets

The sum() function works with the set too.

sett = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} print(sum(sett))

**Output**

15

## Python Program to use the sum function in a dictionary

In the case of the Python dictionary, the key to the dictionary will get added. The output will be the sum of all the keys of the dictionary.

dict = {1: "one", 2: "two", 3: "three"} print(sum(dict))

**Output**

6

See the values of the dictionary are String, but it does not matter here because we will add the keys and not the values.

## Working of sum() function in list of “strings”:

>>> list = ['a','b','c','d'] >>> sum(list) Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module> TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for +: 'int' and 'str'

**Note**: *in the case of a list of strings the function sum() does not work.*

**Also Read:**

Python Remove Duplicates From List

Python Print Without Newline

Learn Python the Hard Way Review PDF

How to Get a Data Science Internship With No Experience

Python Map

## Alternative of sum

For some use cases, there are good alternatives to sum(). The preferred, fast way to concatenate a sequence of strings is by calling “ ”.join(sequence). To add floating point values with extended precision, see math.fsum(). To concatenate a series of iterables, consider using itertools.chain().

## Conclusion

So in this tutorial, we have tried to cover all the details and examples of **Python sum function. But still,** if you have any questions and suggestions comment down below.

Happy Coding!